Initial signs and symptoms may include:
- poor appetite
- illness or fussiness following high-protein feedings
- lab findings:
- elevated arginine
- elevated urine orotic acid
- hyperammonemia (though usually not as high as in other urea cycle defects)
- poor growth
- muscle weakness
- mental retardation
- death (up to 75% live long, though handicapped, lives)
Treatment includes a low protein diet and the use of sodium benzoate or phenylbutyrate to remove the nitrogen load using an alternative mechanism. Patients should be monitored periodically with laboratory tests to verify adequacy of amino acid concentration maintaining normal ammonia levels.
- Contact the family and evaluate the infant for poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy;
- Provide emergency treatment/referral for lethargy, hypotonia, seizures, signs of liver disease (see the ACT Sheet for Argininemia (ACMG) ( 348 KB) for additional information);
- To confirm the diagnosis, work with the following service(s): we currently have no Newborn Screening Programs service providers listed, please search our Services database for related services;
- For evaluation and ongoing collaborative management, consult the following service(s): we currently have no Pediatric Genetics service providers listed, please search our Services database for related services;
- Educate the family regarding signs, symptoms, and the need for urgent care when the infant becomes ill (see Argininemia - Information for Parents (STAR-G));
- Assist in implementation and support of a low protein diet;
- Sodium benzoate or phenylbutyrate therapy help reduce arginine and ammonia levels;
- Periodic monitoring of amino acid and ammonia levels is indicated;
- For those identified after irreversible consequences, assist in management, particularly with developmental and educational interventions.
- Periodic Botox injections and heel cord lengthening can improve spasticity in these patients.
Argininemia Acute Illness Protocol (NECMP)
Guideline for clinicians treating the sick infant or child with argininemia; developed under the direction of Dr. Harvey Levy, Senior Associate in Medicine/Genetics at Children’s Hospital Boston, and Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, for the New England Consortium of Metabolic Programs.
Argininemia - Information for Professionals (STAR-G)
Structured list of information about the condition with links to more information; Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics.
Extensive review of literature that provides technical information on genetic disorders; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man site, hosted by Johns Hopkins University.
An expert-authored, peer-reviewed, current disease description that applies genetic testing to diagnosis and management information for the condition; National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Resources for Argininemia (Disease InfoSearch)
Compilation of information, articles, research, case studies, and genetics links; from Genetic Alliance.
National Newborn Screening & Global Resource Center (NNSGRC)
Fact sheets, data reports, publications, and information for clinicians about genetic screening that includes links to state genetic contacts.
Genetics in Primary Care Institute (AAP)
The goal of this site is to increase collaboration in the care of children with known or suspected genetic disorders. It includes health supervision guidelines and other useful resources; represents a collaboration among the Health Resources & Services Administration, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Utah Newborn Screening Program (UDOH)
Provides information about the program, related legislation, training for practices, and newborn conditions; Utah Department of Health.
Argininemia (Genetics Home Reference)
Excellent, detailed review of condition for patients and families; sponsored by the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Argininemia - Information for Parents (STAR-G)
A factsheet, written by a genetic counselor and reviewed by genetic specialists, for families who have received an initial diagnosis of a newborn disorder; Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics.
National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation
This non-profit organization provides support services and information for families; medical lectures on urea cycle disorders; nutrition and medication resources; and information about events and conferences.
Baby's First Test (Genetic Alliance)
A clearinghouse for newborn screening information. Provides resources about screening at the local, state, and national levels and ways for people to share their viewpoints and questions about newborn screening.
Newborn Screening Information for Families (NNSGRC)
Information for families about genetic screening. Links to support groups, advocacy groups, and state genetic contacts; newsletters; factsheets; data reports; and publications; National Newborn Screening and Global Resource Center.
Center for Parent Information and Resources (DOE)
A large resource library related to children with disabilities. Parent Centers in every state provide training to parents of children with disabilities. Lists local conferences, support groups, advocacy tips, and suggestions for finding schools and other local services; Department of Education, Office of Special Education.
ACT Sheet for Argininemia (ACMG) ( 348 KB)
Contains short-term recommendations for clinical follow-up of the newborn who has screened positive; American College of Medical Genetics.
Confirmatory Algorithms for Argininemia (ACMG) ()
An algorithm of the basic steps involved in determining the final diagnosis of an infant with a positive newborn screen; American College of Medical Genetics.
We currently have no Newborn Screening Programs service providers listed; search our Services database for related services.
We currently have no Pediatric Genetics service providers listed; search our Services database for related services.
For other services related to this condition, browse our Services categories or search our database.
Scaglia F, Lee B.
Clinical, biochemical, and molecular spectrum of hyperargininemia due to arginase I deficiency.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2006;142C(2):113-20. PubMed abstract